- Probiotic For Anxiety?
- Monitor The Health Of Your Community Here
- Side Effects
- Always Buy Quality Products
- Most Common Cbd Drug Interactions And Side Effects
- Try Cbd For Stomach & Improve Your Digestive System
- Does Hemp Milk Contain Cbd?
For example, in one study of 25 children with hard-to-treat epilepsy, 13 kids were given both clobazam and CBD. Researchers found elevated levels of the clobazam in these children. They report that taking CBD and clobazam together is safe, but recommend monitoring medications levels during treatment. They may be able to help determine a CBD product, dosage, and schedule that’s safe with your medications. For some situations, your doctor may want to monitor blood plasma levels of certain medications you take. If your body is metabolizing a medication too slowly, you may have more medication in your system at one time than intended — even if you’ve stuck to your normal dose.
Use of CBD with alcohol or other Central Nervous System depressants increases the risk of sedation and drowsiness, which can lead to injuries. CBD can affect the metabolism of other drugs, causing serious side effects. Also, those who decide on incorporating CBD into their lifestyle need to mention the “grapefruit test” to their doctor. This test was created by Martin Lee, from Project CBD. This test consists of analyzing with your doctor if you have any medication you are taking interact with the grapefruit. But, before adding CBD to your treatment regimen, it is always recommended to consult with your doctor first. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8epis90-3Cg
Probiotic For Anxiety?
If a CBD product comes with a label that says, “third-party tested,” it means an outside lab tested their products to determine their cleanliness. The label should provide the strength of the CBD no matter if you are buying it as an oil, edible, pill, or otherwise. For instance, if you are buying CBD gummies, the label should say how many milligrams of CBD are in each gummy. If you are buying CBD oil, the label should indicate the concentration so you know how many milligrams of CBD comes in each drop.
Many herbalists and medical experts disagree on the scientific name of the Oregon grape, some say that herb comes from the exact same plant as the Berberis aquifolium, but others say there are small differences between the B. Oregon grape is a medicinal herb from the plant family ofBerberidaceae. Long before the Europeans and other immigrants began to arrive in America, indigenous tribes used Oregon grape for many ailments including fever, arthritis, jaundice, diarrhea, and other maladies. I do recommend that you talk with your practitioner about the adaptogens included on my list here to find what would be the best option for you to try, given the specific benefits to your unique root causes and symptoms. She is a Fellow of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists and holds certifications in Medication Therapy Management and Advanced Diabetes Care.
Though Lipitor was not mentioned specifically, this provides significant insight into the caution that should be used when taking statin medications and CBD simultaneously. If you are looking for CBD / Hemp,check out my reviewofAmazon’s Best Hemp Oilsfor pain, anxiety, depression, sleep, and more. In considering the addition of CBD into your daily regimen alongside Lipitor, it’s highly advisable to speak with your medical professional before making any significant changes. As Lipitor is designed to prevent heart attack and stroke, the serious nature of the medication requires all changes be monitored carefully by a health professional. Luckily, Quercetin side effects are minimal and this plant-based dietary supplement is generally considered safe at the recommended dosages.
You can also continue incorporating 1 tsp turmeric in your diet everyday. If you still don’t experience relief you may consult an herbalist or naturopath about curcumin supplements. Yes, it is safe to take turmeric in the diet when taking anti-arthritic medications. If taking Golden Paste or turmeric supplements avoid taking it close to the time of taking other medicines. Though no statistically significant differences were observed, patients receiving the combination therapy reported a better reduction in paib and improvement in the quality of life.
Tests on CBD products around the US revealed others issues that main one being that the label on CBD products indicated more or less CBD than what was actually there. Another prominent risk is that CBD will contain chemical contaminants like heavy metals and pesticides, according to FDA hightech Vegan CBD gummies tests. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s disease could be prevented with CBD largely thanks to its anti-inflammatory functions. CBD has anti-oxidative and neuroprotective properties that can aid in the prevention of these diseases as well.
Each strain is grown to have certain properties and characteristics that will also influence how your body receives the cannabinoids. One of the questions we get asked a lot is about CBD THC ratio numbers and what are the best ratios for anxiety, pain, and sleep disorders. Although we recommend discussing your personal needs with a healthcare professional, this guide goes through everything you need to know about CBD THC ratios in products to be a better informed consumer of hemp and cannabis products. Even so, some people are using cannabinoids to ease side effects of cancer treatment. Because CBD can interact with other cancer therapies, it’s best to check with your doctor before you start taking it. A 2010 study used a mouse model to study the effects of cannabinoids, THC specifically, on suppression of the immune system.
One study conducted on the interactions between CBD and warfarin showed that both medications were beneficial in blood thinning so that the dosage of warfarin could be reduced. Cannabidiol has been known to inhibit the cytochrome P450 system affecting its ability to metabolize drugs leading to an overall increase in processing time. Increased levels of drugs in the system caused by the introduction of CBD can lead unwanted side effects even, in some cases, an overdose. When one drug is being processed, the system is generally healthy, and the dosages prescribed will be accurate.
Monitor The Health Of Your Community Here
Similarly, CB1 and CB2 receptor proteins and endocannabinoids are found in the human synovial tissue of patients with both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis . THC’s interaction with CB1R has been hypothesized to cause alterations in the density of CB1R in the human brain . Indeed, some studies have demonstrated potentially detrimental alterations in the brain structure/function of adult and adolescent rodents , as well as humans consuming cannabis when compared to cannabis-free controls.
Although the extent of the relief may be mild, at first, it will progress if you continue to stimulate the CBD receptors. This is one of the chief benefits for people who experience sciatic nerve pain. They may feel the dull achy or sharp intense pains anywhere along the length of this great big nerve, the longest in the human body.
Always Buy Quality Products
In one small study, after 8 weeks of treatment, ashwagandha was found to improve serum TSH, T3 and T4 levels, normalizing serum levels. Indian gooseberry is also commonly used for high cholesterol and persistent heartburn. American ginseng has also been shown to be a safe and effective adjunct treatment in the management of Type 2 Diabetes. It has been thought that its ginsenoside content plays a role in all of these benefits.
Most Common Cbd Drug Interactions And Side Effects
If you change your eating habits or feel more stressed while you use Adderall, there’s a chance that these changes could contribute to noticeable hair loss. This medication works by increasing blood flow to your scalp and transitioning your hair follicles into the anagen, or active growth, phase of the hair growth cycle. If you’re prescribed Adderall to treat ADHD or narcolepsy and notice that you’re shedding more hair than normal, it’s best to talk to your healthcare provider. If you’re losing hair at your hairline or crown, your hair loss could be the result of male pattern baldness, not Adderall-induced telogen effluvium. If you’re shedding more than this, it’s often a sign that you’re affected by some form of hair loss. If you are affected by this form of hair loss, you may notice that your entire head of hair begins to look thinner than normal, with more visible scalp and less coverage.
There’s also evidence indicating that at low doses it can increase oxytocin and vasopressin levels, which may impact moods, blood pressure levels and other functions. The study also found that whether the melatonin Do delta 8 edibles get you high? dosage was short- or long-term, there was no dependence, tolerance, rebound insomnia or withdrawal symptoms. If you take GABA in addition to taking blood pressure medication, your blood pressure may drop too low.
Finally, the topical administration of THC prodrugs has been proposed as a treatment to reduce intraocular pressure in glaucoma . THC appears to be especially attractive in this case as, in addition to its intra ocular lowering activity, the presence of cannabinoid receptors in ocular tissues has recently been confirmed . Hydrophilic THC prodrugs have been obtained by linkage with valine, with dipeptides and amino acid-dicarboxylic esters . Among them the best corneal permeability and intraocular pressure-lowering activity shown by these prodrugs were observed in the THC-Val-HS emulsion and micellar solution formulations.
Perhaps their work will unlock the doors of perception in our minds in ways we can’t yet even begin to imagine. Psilocybin magic mushrooms appear to be a potential tool in helping people quit smoking tobacco. By comparison, conventional smoking cessation method success rates have about a 35 perecnt success rate. There are no known dangers when combining magic mushrooms and marijuana , but cannabis is known to enhance the psychedelic effects of magic mushrooms. If you are taking any pharmaceutical drugs be very cautious when approaching the use of magic mushrooms.
Try Cbd For Stomach & Improve Your Digestive System
Jet lag, shift work and poor vision can cause sleep problems due to disrupted melatonin cycles. And blue light emitted by screens (TV, computer, phone, etc.) suppresses production, making it more difficult to fall asleep. Supplementing may help treat insomnia, delayed sleep phase disorder, jet lag, sleep problems related to menopause, pain and a number of other issues. Speak with your doctor first before taking melatonin if you have any ongoing health concerns or are currently taking any other medications. Other possible side effects include daytime sleepiness, short-term feelings of depression, stomach cramps, irritability and decreased libido. For men, breast enlargement and reduced sperm count are also possible.
When you consider the additional positive benefits of taking CBD and stimulating this unique system in our bodies, it is hard to pass up on trying it for sciatic nerve pain therapy. As cited in an aforementioned study, CBD may protect the body’s organs from the toxic effects of alcohol. This means that it can have a similar benefit against many other toxins. Because the industry is still in its infancy, the full realization of benefits has not yet been solidified. It may well turn out that cannabinoid cream works miracles for some by curing cancer and everything under the sun while providing limited help in other patients.
For example, in vitro studies and clinical trials have demonstrated that lactoferrin can inhibit replication of the virus at an intracellular level. It’s better to align yourself with quality products than waste your money buying the lowest-priced product. By combining the wellness benefits of cannabis with the calming, rejuvenating effects of botanicals and essential oils, CBD bath bombs are redefining relaxation. We truly believe that high-quality, high-potency CBD products have the potential to elevate your well-being.
This elevation did not occur in the presence of another AED, stiripentol , and reinforces the notion that the increase in N-desmethylclobazam is due to CBD’s metabolism by CYP2C19, as stiripentol inhibits CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 . Cannabis has a potential for clinical use often obscured by unreliable and purely anecdotal reports. The most important natural cannabinoid is the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC); others include cannabidiol and cannabigerol . Not all the observed effects can be ascribed to THC, and the other constituents may also modulate its action; for example CBD reduces anxiety induced by THC. A standardised extract of the herb may be therefore be more beneficial in practice and clinical trial protocols have been drawn up to assess this.
One of hundreds of components in marijuana, CBD does not cause a “high” by itself. Cannabidiol , has gained widespread attention for its potential to ease symptoms of insomnia, anxiety, chronic pain, and a host of other health conditions. CBD is also known as cannabidiol and starting 2018, it’s legal in all 50 states of North America. CBD can help treat a wide number of diseases and ailments, including seizures, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, arthritis, and more. Generally, the main cause for higher levels of cholesterol, and thus the risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke are typically attributed to poor dietary choices.
Combining CBD products with sedatives might be redundant in this case. Sedatives help to create the same state of relaxation in users, and combining them with CBD will only increase the calming effect. Although there are no known negative effects of using CBD in combination with sedatives, it may be best to use them separately. They are specially designed by doctors to be metabolized in a certain way before entering the body of a patient. If you’re unsure, you can either ask the doctor directly when he prescribes you medicine, or you can read the label carefully. If you see any reference to not eating grapefruit, then you probably shouldn’t consume CBD products either.
Even if the medication you’re taking is not on one of these lists, it’s still safest to consult your doctor before taking CBD. The cytochrome P450 enzyme system contains over 50 enzymes, six of which metabolize about 90% of the drugs we consume. Whenever you take a drug, these enzymes work to break down the drug’s chemicals dm markt cbd öl into substances your body can use. When you take CBD, it temporarily deactivates these cytochrome P450 enzymes. As a result, your body has a tougher time breaking down the drugs you’ve ingested. Cytochromes are categorized by letter, then by number to identify how they work and what they normally metabolize.
Given the inconsistency in the OTC CBD product, there are no dosing recommendations available for each claimed condition and they are not prescribed like a FDA approved medication and there is no physician follow-up. Withdrawal symptoms are not well described in the literature but however, most likely a person who takes CBD regularly for insomnia, will experience rebound insomnia if he stops . The treatment of OUD with CBD bears particularly a risk, as the amount of CBD taken is not dosed in a controlled setting and for someone who has lost control over a substance prior might have difficulties dosing CBD as well.
Your doctor may also order blood tests to check your thyroid hormone levels to see if they’re too high or too low. This was a side effect reported by people taking the drug in clinical trials. The healing properties of these oils can even be recombined to specifically treat different types of ailments. What is needed, is more information to identify which compound from the plant that is aiding their specific ailment. Even if someone has not had a beneficial experience with one of the strains they have chosen to use, there is a myriad of other strains with different ratios/percentages of terpenes/cannabinoids. Genetic profiles of strains are even being mapped to aid researchers in identifying which may best be helpful to patients in the future.
We insist and to understand the depth as to why we insist, here’s a little read for you, read on. Transdermal administration delivers drugs through the skin via patches or other delivery systems. Although comparable to oral-dosage forms in term of efficacy, transdermal patches provide numerous advantages.
In order to know which medicines and how much to use, your doctor needs to know ahead of time how much and how often you use marijuana. Taking some dosages of CBD oil is capable of reducing anxiety and when CBD oil is combined with THC, it takes the anxiety off THC thus; balancing the stress level. This is due to the action of CBD oil on some receptors in the body; both of them are involved in reducing fear and panic responses to stress. The objective of this article is to provide balanced and accurate information as regards the effects and benefits derivable from CBD oil.
It is important to note that you should take any kind of supplement as noted on the bottle’s recommended dosage and not abuse or take any dosage far exceeding that of the recommended serving or daily dose. Doing so can have adverse effects as well as side effects ranging from mild to potentially life threatening depending on the supplement and combination of other supplements or medications currently being used. Always consult your doctor before making and major dietary changes or adding a series of supplements to your diet. Type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease, affects about 150 million people world wide. It is characterized by insulin resistance of peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which in turn inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation.
Even more promising is the fact that CBD may target the same enzymes within the stomach as omeprazole, hinting that CBD does indeed carry the ability to manage symptoms of GERD and acid reflux. Hopefully, more studies will be conducted in the near future, to further explore CBD as a healthy alternative to many over-the-counter medications. Rather than targeting the valve within the esophagus responsible for preventing acid backflow, omeprazole specifically targets enzymes and acids within the stomach.
CBD e-liquids are one of the most common CBD vape products on the market today. CBD E-liquids are vapable liquids that contain CBD compounds that are vaped through an electronic device. When it comes to CBD vape oil UK, it seems like your options for products are almost endless. If you have done any previous research on CBD, it is likely that you have noticed it seems to offer benefits for many different things. This leaves many people asking themselves how it is capable of helping so many various ailments with success. CBD is extracted from cultivars of hemp or Cannabis Sativa L and is added to compounds such as propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin to make CBD vape oil UK.
The Healing History Of Hemp
Many medications interact with GABA and GABA receptors in the brain, altering their function to achieve certain effects, typically relaxation, pain relief, stress and anxiety reduction, lower blood pressure, and improved sleep. Barbiturates, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and anti-seizure medications are some of the medications that target GABA. CBD has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect that might help to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and related conditions. A 2009 study on rats found that CBD can reduce high blood pressure, and a 2017 study on healthy humans showed CBD to reduce blood pressure as well. Both of these studies were performed under highly stressful conditions. However, a 2017 review showed that CBD was not effective at lowering blood pressure under normal conditions.
Melia azadirachta or neempan is used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat diabetes and is also found in CuraLin. Salacia root extracts are also popular in Japan, where they are taken with a meal in the form of a tea or as a food supplement to treat both diabetes and obesity. The root of Salacia oblonga is a traditional herbal medicine used to treat diabetes, but is not included in Curalin. It took 15 days to achieve significant reductions in glucose levels in those with diabetes, suggesting that Amla powder takes at least a couple of weeks to show benefit.
It is important to note that Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol , limited to 0.3% in CBD products vs 20%+ in marijuana is heavily involved in inhibiting CYP enzymes. Both CBD and THC are metabolized by CYP3A4 while THC is also metabolized by CYP2C9 and CBD by CYP2C19. From what we currently know, the less CYP are enzymes inhibited, the less chance it can interact with other medications. Along with its inability to cause a high, along with being available for kids and pets, this is another reason CBD oil may be the preferable choice vs medical marijuana.
The following are some of the less common reasons why people use CBD. People use CBD tinctures, topical products, edibles and capsules for a range of different reasons. Right now, the Food and Drug Administration is still working to determine the effectiveness of different CBD products.
With oral use, too, there is a significant reduction in pain sensation in rat experiments. There is less inflammation and a lower concentration of inflammatory molecules in and around the joint space, which leads to improvement of symptoms, as well as preventing joint cartilage breakdown over time. CBD also has powerful antioxidant activity, said to exceed that of vitamin C or vitamin E. It is thus claimed to be the first endocannabinoid modulator to be used in patients to relieve pain. It also increases adenosine signaling and thus reduces inflammation and produces pain relief. These side effects are described and reported after drug trials and research studies have been conducted.
If either of these effects persist or worsen, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly. Drink a full glass of water (8 ounces/240 milliliters) with it unless your doctor tells you otherwise. Do not lie down for at least 10 minutes after you have taken this drug. If stomach upset occurs while you are taking this medication, you may take it with food or milk. Since 2011, John Malanca has been the “go to”, expert and trusted professional in education and information in medical cannabis and the health/wellness sectors. His extensive knowledge of cannabis, the endocannabinoid system, patient needs, and disease care, combined with his upbeat and genuine concern for his audience makes him a favorite among industry hosts.
The Cannabidiol aka CBD products seems to be everywhere with tinctures, oils, gummy bears, chocolates, pills, and creams, etc. All of these are available everywhere on the internet, they can even be found on drugstore chains, and perhaps can be available even at your local farmer’s market. CYP 450 is vitally important to our physiology because of its role in the metabolism of over 60% of prescription medications that people take. Like CBD, grapefruit inhibits CYP3A4 to allow the body to produce hormones for longer.
The study found that adding the CBD oil produced a “synergistic” effect, suggesting that CBD may enhance the antidepressant effect provided bySSRI medication. However, SSRI antidepressants like fluoxetine and paroxetine do interact with the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, so it’s still best to speak to your doctor before mixing these. Studies show that CBD can act as a mild coagulant, thinning the blood. For those taking Warfarin or another blood thinner, this may prolong the effect of your dose and temporarily increase the thinning of your blood, as CBD increases the level of the drug in your blood. Because CBD inhibits these enzymes, it can cause a higher concentration of the drug to stay in your system longer than it should.
Cannabis is associated with systemic reactions that potentially affect perioperative outcomes. We have reviewed the most important pharmacological aspects and pathophysiological effects that should be considered during the perioperative management of chronic cannabis/cannabinoids users. The synthetic analogues provide higher potency with increased risk for complications.
The potency of a CBD oil largely depends on the method of administration. In other words, how you choose to ingest CBD can impact its bioavailability . For example, a 20mg dose of CBD administered through a vaporizer is likely to be significantly more potent than one administered topically. The benefits of CBD for epilepsy have been demonstrated, perhaps more so than for any other condition. The evidence is so strong, in fact, that the only FDA-approved drug containing CBD is prescribed for severe forms of pediatric epilepsy. Anecdotally, many people take CBD oil while on birth control and report no side effects.
Does Hemp Milk Contain Cbd?
For this reason they are often found together in workout supplements and pre-workout dietary regiments. Prolonged use of L-Theanine twice daily up to six weeks has also been shown to improve the restfulness of sleep and reduce nightly activity during sleep. As amino acids are oftentimes broken down within the body to form ATP for cell activity, L-Theanine may also provide a slight increase in energy in addition to making you feel more alert. A 2013 study reveals possible omega-3 supplements side effects can include decreased blood clotting in healthy adults taking 640 milligrams of fish oil daily. Overall, the researchers conclude that higher doses of omega-3s are a more suitable recommendation for patients with heart disease rather than healthy subjects. The possibility of abnormal bleeding is exactly why people on blood thinners are warned not to take omega-3s without talking to their doctors first.
Be sure your doctor is aware of any adrenal gland problems you have before you start taking Synthroid. For mild symptoms of an allergic reaction, call your doctor right away. They may recommend ways to ease your symptoms and determine whether you should keep taking Synthroid. But if your symptoms are serious and you think you’re having a medical emergency, immediately call 911 or your local emergency number. Rarely, a heart attack can also be a side effect of taking Synthroid.
But it will provide basic information to help you consider whether medical cannabis is right for you, ideally working openly with your physician and other health care providers. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, stop them altogether. Epidiolex, which contains CBD, is the first cannabis-derived medicine approved by the FDA for these conditions. Before you use CBD oil, make sure you understand the drug interactions to avoid dangerous health risks by contacting your doctor and getting professional advice. The Bottom LineBefore you use CBD oil, make sure you understand the drug interactions to avoid dangerous health risks by contacting your doctor and getting professional advice. Like we mentioned earlier, medications used to treat blood pressure and abnormal heart rhythms, like calcium channel blockers and blood thinners, like warfarin, can be profoundly impacted by CBD’s presence in your system.
They’re cheap for a reason, most likely cutting corners somewhere. And just like anything else, CBD may not be the best fit for every person. CBD and other cannabinoids are fat-soluble and require a lipid precursor to activate their receptors. Hence, CBD products almost always contain a carrier oil to help increase the bioavailability of CBD. Consuming CBD with high-fat foods or a meal also aids in adsorption. Isolates are formulated to contain only a single cannabinoid, such as CBD or THC alone.
Instead, it simply means there is potential for an interaction that you should be aware of. In the large majority of cases, CBD can safely be used with most medications. Using CBD in tandem with over-the-counter medications warrants little to no concern. If using an OTC drug long-term or at a higher than normal dosage due to medical advice from your doctor or vet, please consult said authority before using a CBD product.
With the exception of olivetol, (40% maximal effectiveness), none of the compounds inhibited tetradecanoylphorbolacetate -induced aggregation of human or rabbit platelets. All of these cannabinoids partially inhibited primary aggregation and totally inhibited secondary aggregation of human platelets when adrenaline was used as the agonist. We have previously identified and characterized a heparin-binding cell surface protein (heparin/heparan sulfate-interacting protein, or HIP) present on epithelial and endothelial cells. A synthetic peptide mimicking a heparin-binding domain of HIP is now shown to bind a small subset of heparin molecules with high affinity and, therefore, presumably recognizes a specific structural motif in the heparin molecule. Further analyses revealed that the heparin molecules exhibiting a high affinity for the HIP peptide also show an extremely high affinity for antithrombin III (AT-III), a cofactor required for heparin’s anticoagulant activity.
This is because there is not enough evidence from clinical research studies on the safety and effectiveness of the use of oral Oregon grape root. It is recommended that Oregon grape is used no longer than two to three weeks before taking a break from its use. Long-term internal use is not recommended; long-term use has been found to lead to adverse reactions such as damage to the natural probiotics in the gastrointestinal system and liver toxicity. Oregon grape is not safe for use by people who are breastfeeding; brain damage has been reported in newborn infants exposed to berberine, which can be transferred to the infant via breast milk.
Concerns have grown rapidly about antibiotic resistance in the recent years. Scientists are working to create and discover novel antibiotic drugs to combat this resistance. Specifically, I am fascinated by the potential antimicrobial ability of honeys, especially Manuka honey. Methylglyoxal is the major antimicrobial component found in Manuka Honey. In my project, I am going to use the Kirby-Bauer method and microbial viability assays to measure the antimicrobial effects of Methylglyoxal against gram-positive, gram-negative and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains.
Most of the participants experienced positive results after using the products for only two weeks. The study results were published in the Nutrition and Dietary Supplements and the Peer-reviewed Journal. Over 50 million Americans struggle with joint discomfort among other mobility conditions. Are Vegan CBD Gummy Bears suitable for children? My capstone focuses on the design and validation of an in vitro blood-brain barrier assay. I would like to see if aspartame can pass through the blood-brain barrier using the neutral amino acid transporter , which is expressed in the hCMEC/D3 human endothelial blood-brain barrier cell line.